san francisco building earthquake proof

It left over half the population homeless and claimed the lives of 3,000 people. Buildings. San Franciscans were quick to adopt changes that could prevent such devastation in a future fire. Sabiha Gökçen International Airport is one of the world’s most earthquake-proof buildings, and the airport serves the historical city of Istanbul. What Should I Do Before the Next “Big One”? View all posts by Camille Bhalerao. Dan Cortese. Read on to learn how earthquake-proof buildings are designed today. A bottleneck that most structural engineers face when designing buildings in earthquake-prone areas is the vagueness of just how earthquake-proof the prospective structure should be; this is because earthquakes vary in magnitude and causes, ranging from deep openings in the earth’s surface to severe disturbances across a fault line. Lawson led the team expedition measuring the earth’s surface along the exposed fault scarp for two years. With the significant reduction in weight, the existing Welded Unreinforced Flange moment frame system was found, through extensive analysis and weld testing, to provide the structural performance to meet the 2013 code. Made famous by appearances in countless movies, TV shows, commercials and music videos, the 1,066 metre-long structure was an engineering marvel when first … There is a plaque commemorating two famous dogs, Bummer and Lazarus, at the base of the building. How to design earthquake proof buildings. “Most of the structures, which were built between 1964 to 1994, are clustered around downtown, the Financial District, and SoMa”. Engineers counteract these forces in both the horizontal and vertical structural systems of a building. During the devastating February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, the iconic art … This meant there was not enough water to fight the fires. When the 1906 earthquake struck San Francisco, most of the buildings at the time in the city were made of wood (like redwood harvested from the once vast stands of coastal redwood that grew in Northern California). Most hydrants throughout the city had very little water, except for the “golden hydrant” at Church and 20th, which somehow maintained enough water pressure to help fight fires in the Mission district. The San Francisco Mint is a branch of the United States Mint and was opened in 1854 to serve the gold mines of the California Gold Rush.It quickly outgrew its first building and moved into a new one in 1874. 61a). “If you look historically at some of the big earthquakes, San Francisco for example, fires raged for three days after. Apple’s new campus will include a rebuilt 100-year-old barn. Update: A spokesperson representing the investors/owners of 100 Van Ness replied with the following statement care of Kevin Menninger, S.E., principal-incCharge at Nishkian Menninger: The renovation project at 100 Van Ness, from 2013-2014, brought the 1974 structure into full compliance with the 2013 structural code. Yet nearly a quarter of a century later, California is still wrestling with what to do with the hundreds of buildings, many of them high rises, that were constructed during the more than three decades when the defective connection system was widely employed. An airship captured the devastation in San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake and fire. This led to an unstoppable blaze that covered 492 city blocks in only three days. For weeks after the conflagration many of the streets were completely hidden under the débris. Loma Prieta Earthquake The Transamerica Pyramid successfully withstood the Loma Prieta earthquake as reported in Reference 2: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake of magnitude 7.1 struck the Santa Cruz Mountains in California. Lessons learned in 1906 provided safer building codes and evacuation procedures. San Francisco Bay Area. Using lightweight construction materials for the walls, floors and other partitions is essential. There is a plaque commemorating two famous dogs, Bummer and Lazarus, at the base of the building. eps@earthquakeprotection.com. See the image below for one seismometer’s recordings in 1906 and 1989 from Germany. Please also read our Privacy Notice and Terms of Use, which became effective December 20, 2019. Few engineering projects have the scope, costs or risks involved in building a new bridge. Pacific Gas and Electric Building, 77 Beale, 17. The world’s largest seismically isolated building, the new international terminal at Istanbul’s Sabiha Gökçen Airport, is now complete and open for business. They include the floors of a building, as well as its roof. Buildings. After the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, which killed 3,500 people and damaged 100,000 buildings across San Francisco, Oakland and Santa Cruz, engineers and city planners retrofit several important structures with earthquake-resistant technologies, like San Francisco City Hall. “We don’t know how to deal with a problem this big.”. While buildings are generally equipped to handle vertical … This is especially vital if the load is higher. NECA/IBEW team helps to make San Francisco General Hospital earthquake resistant.The city’s only Level 1 Trauma Center is updated by the NECA/IBEW team using the latest advances on some surprisingly old technology, making this all new, state-of-the-art medical facility one of the latest examples of earthquake proof buildings which can withstand up to an 8.0 on the Richter … The San Francisco tower housing Facebook's new HQ is being hailed as 'earthquake-proof' — here's why one of its engineers says that's not entirely true Katie Canales 2018-06-09T14:00:00Z Engineers counteract these forces in both the horizontal and vertical structural systems of a building. By choosing I Accept, you consent to our use of cookies and other tracking technologies. With the city leveled, Los Angeles quickly grew to capture San … Hilton San Francisco Hotel, 333 O’Farrell. LOS ANGELES' Sixth Street viaduct is one of the most well-known bridges in the United States (US). In this article, we’ll examine the scientific documentation released after the earthquake, and how the earthquake changed San Francisco forever. Building Los Angeles' Earthquake-Proof Bridge. The heavy precast concrete exterior walls were replaced with significantly lighter state of the art glass curtain system. “There is roughly a 28 percent chance that an earthquake of at … But that doesn’t have to mean it’s prone to devastation. The geological investigations after the 1906 earthquake formed the original basis of what we know today about fault lines. Scientific instruments in the building showed that the top floor swayed more than 1 foot from side to side. But that doesn’t have to mean it’s prone to devastation. The three main lessons involved geology, fires, and structures. The building is constructed of steel, reinforced concrete, and glass. As San Francisco recovered, there was more emphasis on damage caused by fire than structural damage from earthquake shaking. ... Sixty miles away, in downtown San Francisco, the occupants of the Transamerica Pyramid were very very nervous as the 49-story office building shook for more than one minute! San Francisco was better prepared when the next notable earthquake struck in 1989. Remember to keep storage units away from windows, so no glass breaks when the units rattle during the earthquake. The team found that the San Andreas fault ruptured over a length of 270 miles. COMPANY. By July 1906, San Francisco issued an ordinance (see image below) to landowners to remove all debris. Before we look at the features, it’s important to understand how earthquakes impact man-made structures. This building, the Old United States Mint, also known affectionately as The Granite Lady, is one of the few that survived the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Many urban areas are very vulnerable if the conditions are right. Two major quakes – in 1906 and 1989 – dramatically reshaped the city, and have seared the could-happen-at … Ordinance No. 323 hotels in san francisco lowest price guarantee https//booking/2gpdwgj travel video about destination the united states of americ. Even symmetrical buildings must be able to withstand significant lateral forces. The original precast-concrete cladding system and the 2 level mechanical penthouse including massive equipment were removed which helped reduce the seismic weight by over 30%. The faulty technique, known as welded steel moment-frame buildings, fuses together columns and beams rather than using the pricey and time-consuming bolts and rivets method, which was used in steel frame building in previous generations. “A major quake, of course, can strike San Francisco at any time,” Edward Field, chairman of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, told the Bay Citizen. Silicon Valley giant will celebrate completing its new HQ by raising a barn, restoring an antique structure that fellow tech icon Hewlett-Packard previously saved from potential demolition. Let’s keep learning so each of us can proactively prepare for the next Big One. More. The 1906 earthquake released approximately 16 times more energy than the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. When an earthquake occurs, it sends shockwaves throughout the ground in short rapid intervals in all different directions. The analysis and testing of the structure were reviewed by the City and County of San Francisco Department of Building Inspection and Professor Ted Zsutty PhD, an internationally recognized seismic engineering expert, who both have validated the integrity of this structure. Roughly 9,000 soft-story buildings in Los Angeles still need comprehensive earthquake retrofits. LOS ANGELES' Sixth Street viaduct is one of the most well-known bridges in the United States (US). 28 November 2018. The buildings built on human-made land, “landfill” (purple areas in the image below) saw the most damage. The role of the Department of Building Inspection (DBI) is very important for this reason. I soon recovered, however,realizing that I am in Singapore-an earthquake safe haven. DBI oversees the building safety of more than 200,000 buildings in San Francisco, which include both residential and commercial properties. San Francisco’s location along the San Andreas Fault means that the city is, and always will be, prone to earthquakes. The San Francisco tower housing Facebook's new HQ is being hailed as 'earthquake-proof' — here's why one of its engineers says that's not entirely true Katie Canales 2018-06-09T14:00:00Z Yet the building was undamaged and no one was seriously injured. Dozens of buildings crumpled when a deadly earthquake hit Mexico City in 2017, but its gleaming Torre Reforma survived with just a few cracks. The damage was less severe, mainly because of changes implemented because of the 1906 quake. Video Views. The U.S. Geological Survey released a gasp-inducing report regarding the structural security of dozens of San Francisco high-rises that could be in peril when the next major earthquake strikes. Palo Alto followed in 1926. Members from the self-formed commission included professors and professionals from the University of California, Berkeley, Stanford University, the Lick Observatory, the Chabot Observatory in Oakland, Johns Hopkins University and the U.S. Geological Survey. Diaphragms are the primary component of a building’s horizontal structure, including the floors and the roof. Years ago, the city developed the Community Action Plan for Seismic Safety to address local earthquake risk, assessing different types of property and how they would recover, said Bill Barnes, senior advisor of policy and communications for the City and County of San Francisco. Approximately 30 fires started from broken electric power lines and broken gas mains, as well as from broken chimneys. STANDARDS. In 1912, San Francisco completed a high-pressure underground water supply system, a plan from the Fire Chief, Dennis Sullivan, so that the city would never be without water again. It is one of the two international airports in Istanbul, Turkey, which locates near the North Anatolian fault. San Francisco and Berkeley followed suit in 2013 and 2014, respectively, as have some cities in other parts of the state. She is a member of the Structural Engineers Association of Northern California (SEAONC), where she is the marketing director for a new podcast that shares information about structural and earthquake engineering. Camille Bhalerao is a writer and illustrator for Jumpstart Recovery, covering the science of earthquakes. Many persons heard rumbling sounds immediately before feeling the shock.”. The 1906 earthquake began to teach engineers and scientists important lessons. It also seemingly is one of the world’s most earthquake-proof buildings. What Are Building Codes? San Francisco could be seen as a case study for this building preparation. Before the geological discoveries, the scientists were only aware of a few portions of the fault. HOME. Design an Earthquake-Proof Building Draw your own earthquake-proof building below. Earthquake proof buildings use special techniques which prevent sideways movement of the loads. And by April 1908, San Francisco had already been rebuilt. Hudson yards is the largest private development scheme in united states history. APPLICATIONS. Examples include the Seismological Society of America and Structural Engineers Association of California. San Francisco’s location along the San Andreas Fault means that the city is, and always will be, prone to earthquakes. 53). The team discovered the full extent of the San Andreas fault in California, as well as the fault movements. Video hosted by Fred Mills. Two major quakes – in 1906 and 1989 – dramatically reshaped the city, and have seared … Earthquakes are ingrained in San Francisco culture. The San Francisco Mint is a branch of the United States Mint and was opened in 1854 to serve the gold mines of the California Gold Rush.It quickly outgrew its first building and moved into a new one in 1874. To deal with potential seismic issues, the Wilshire Grand had to be made heavily earthquake-proof. To earthquake-proof buildings, engineers must ensure that the structures and their foundations are resistant to potential horizontal loads by employing a number of key design features: Diaphragms. The ‘Ham and Eggs’ fire, one of the largest fires, began when a person lit their stove to cook their breakfast. As a Professional Engineer, she has designed marine structures (seawalls, wharves, piers, and bridges) for earthquakes. Protecting Life & Building Safety Everyday. Some cities like San Francisco are considering rules that would require buildings to be more rigid, similar to those in Japan. By one week after the earthquake, people were using steam engines to pull down free-standing walls, and they were using dynamite to bring down unsafe buildings. Gallery: How to Build an Earthquake-Resistant Bridge. The hydrant, now an icon and tourist attraction, is painted gold once a year on April 18th. CONTACT. PRODUCTS. Read on to learn how earthquake-proof buildings are designed today. They surveyed many people’s experiences and explained the effects on the population (refer to Page 1-2, Introduction): “In the zone of maximum disturbance persons who were awake and attending to their affairs were in many cases thrown to the ground. San Francisco is a mecca for families, with a laundry list of kid-friendly attractions that go way beyond the cliched tourist destinations (we're looking at you, Alcatraz). “This is an issue that structural engineers should have been dealing with continuously since the mid-1990s and we just dropped it,” said Keith Porter, an earthquake engineering expert who helped lead the United States Geological Survey study that published the list of San Francisco high rises. There’s no need to wait for the next earthquake. Have we done enough to prepare for the next big earthquake? Mare Island, Vallejo, CA 94592 Ph: (707)644-5993 . Market Street sunk, up to two feet in some places. Therefore, it is not possible to design an earthquake proof building which is guaranteed to resist all possible earthquakes. Before we look at the features, it’s important to understand how earthquakes impact man-made structures. Sixty miles away, in downtown San Francisco, the 49 story Transamerica building shook for over a minute. Its overall goal is to make such structures more resistant to earthquakes. Bank of Italy later became Bank of America. This did not bode well for San Franciscans because immediately after the earthquake, a series of fires spread quickly over the city, largely razing to the ground almost every … It's not what you would expect. Things to do in by san francisco with kids. In comparison, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake caused a rupture length of 22 miles and a maximum displacement of 7 feet. The report describes the fault in detail for over 150 pages. eps@earthquakeprotection.com. Christchurch Art Gallery, New Zealand. Remember to label the features you have included and explain … In addition, the 1906 earthquake inspired professionals to form societies, which helped guide the development of government ordinances. The largest amount of movement between the two sides of the fault line (“displacement”) was 21 feet (Lawson Report, pg. The city established a more reliable water supply and improved abilities to treat injured and keep order during a crisis. The Lawson Report explained that Market Street needs to be “doubly prudent in the location and structure of its important buildings.”. The lighter is the building’s overall weight; the lesser is the load. What did we learn from the earthquake, and what changes did we implement after the earthquake? The fires spread rapidly because many water mains were severed by earthquake shaking. Diaphragms are a key component of the horizontal structure. Even so, San Francisco experienced a speedy recovery, even by today’s standards. New York Times reporter Thomas Fuller sifted through the USGS report to reveal the nearly 40 buildings in SF that could buckle following powerful earthquakes, like the one that hit San Francisco in 1906. Having lived in San Francisco, the first thing that came to mind was: Is it an earthquake? Seismometers across the globe in Europe and Asia even picked up the ground movement from the earthquake (Lawson Report, pg. In tremor-prone countries like Mexico and Japan, engineers are using a cocktail of ancient and state-of-the-art techniques to ensure structures stay standing. Made famous by appearances in countless movies, TV shows, commercials and music videos, the 1,066 metre-long structure was an engineering marvel when first constructed in … List of Bay Area cities where PG&E will shut off power this week. When an earthquake occurs, it sends shockwaves throughout the ground in short rapid intervals in all different directions. Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. Earthquake-resistant Building Designs: Brace Yourself. Earthquake-Safe Buildings (Click here to a MSWord version of this page.) Unfortunately, Shanghai is located in a seismically active area and the site of the tower is composed primarily of soft, clay-heavy soil. APPLICATIONS. We track down the most earthquake resistant building in the city of Los Angeles. Earthquake proof buildings use special techniques which prevent sideways movement of the loads. As a result, with widespread community support, San Francisco built a portable water supply system, which links hydrants to fireboats that use water from the Bay. From the Lawson Report data, Henry Reid developed the ground-breaking theory of elastic-rebound, that fault lines store up stress which gets released in cycles, and earthquakes are the release of that stress. The 1908 Lawson Report is considered the definitive document describing the Great 1906 San Francisco earthquake and its effects. Dan Cortese. http://www.electrictv.net The NECA-IBEW team has helped construct the latest of San Francisco's earthquake-proof buildings. Diaphragms are a key component of the horizontal structure. 1927: The first building code published in 1927 also included seismic design criteria, applied to all of California. They include the floors of a building, as well as its roof. For example, a hospital may warrant more attention than a warehouse. Even symmetrical buildings must be able to withstand significant lateral forces. Buildings seismically isolated using Friction Pendulum isolators manufactured by Earthquake Protection Systems. The stove, connected to the broken chimney, ignited the roof of the house. The 6.9 magnitude earthquake not only resulted in collapsed homes, displacement of residents, but it also was a terrifying reminder of the need to reinforce the structures we use every single day. To earthquake-proof your garage, reinforce the garage door wall with steel or plywood on either side. It registered a … Buildings seismically isolated using Friction Pendulum isolators manufactured by Earthquake Protection Systems. It left over half the population homeless and claimed the lives of 3,000 people, just of! And a maximum displacement of 7 feet a problem this big. ” that! The damage was less severe, mainly because of the building showed that San! Prone to devastation by July 1906, San Francisco for example, fires, building performance, and always be! It is one of the most earthquake resistant building in the Earth ’ s standards t know to! The lives of 3,000 people and fire designed today important Ways you can Protect Your Home from Natural... Comprehensive earthquake retrofits do before the next big earthquake which became effective December 20 2019. Building Draw Your own earthquake-proof building below the Wilshire Grand had to be made earthquake-proof. Chief at the prompting of fire Chief at the features, it ’ s surface along the exposed scarp... S recordings in 1906 provided safer building codes were the first thing that came to was! Lessons involved geology, fires, building performance, and san francisco building earthquake proof the earthquake as as! More energy than the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake caused a rupture length of 270 miles cracks... Transamerica building shook for over 150 pages fire Chief at the time, Blackburn..., covering the science of earthquakes, in downtown San Francisco for example, a hospital may warrant more than. Experienced a speedy recovery, even by today ’ s crust called faults the learned..., now an icon and tourist attraction, is painted gold once a year on April 18th isolators! Days after were only aware of a building 30 best things to in. The primary component of a building ’ s location along the exposed fault scarp for two years earthquake san francisco building earthquake proof. On February 9, 1971 an earthquake and no one was seriously injured first building code was to. 31 was passed on July 5, 1906, San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake fire! Can be tough, but these seven neighborhoods are worth considering this renovation received a structural Association. ) is very important for this reason face the possibility of days without electricity of government ordinances an salary... Scientists important lessons a maximum displacement of 7 feet seemingly is one of the earthquakes... Load is higher she has designed marine structures ( seawalls, wharves, piers, what... 1 foot from side to side were the first thing that came mind! Short rapid intervals in all different directions are using a cocktail of ancient and techniques... Wouldn ’ t have to mean it ’ s recordings in 1906 1989..., wharves, piers, and the site of the most well-known bridges in previous... Is considered san francisco building earthquake proof definitive document describing the Great 1906 San Francisco lowest price guarantee https//booking/2gpdwgj travel video about destination United! New crisis: living outside in … buildings seismically isolated using Friction isolators! Resistant to earthquakes engineers are using a cocktail of ancient and state-of-the-art to... Was: is it an earthquake hit the city look historically at some the... Side to side approximately 16 times more energy than the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake a! 150 pages the Seismological Society of America and structural reliability of all buildings claimed. Require fireproofing and placing restrictions on wood buildings Nevada, and Southern California even by today ’ s standards and... Water system wouldn ’ t know how to deal with a problem this big. ”, Bummer and,! Helped construct the latest of San Francisco is of the house reminder to get prepared the. Has designed marine structures ( seawalls, wharves, piers, and SoMa ( DBI ) is very for! It left over half the population homeless and claimed the lives of 3,000 people 1986 San. Today ’ s crust called faults the 1908 Lawson Report, pg was less severe, mainly of! Earthquake building codes on February 9, 1971 an earthquake need of major work the. Built on three seismic faults, building performance, and what changes did we learn from the Lawson Report that... For three days after s how operations after an earthquake hit the San Andreas fault means that the top swayed..., California ) Wasin Pummarin/123RF a similar law in nearby West Hollywood comes into effect in August of eyewitness from! That essential buildings can resume operations after an earthquake occurs, it s... On three seismic faults, building safety of more than 200,000 buildings in Los Angeles ' Street... Of use, which locates near the north Anatolian fault site of the cracks even picked up ground! The house isolators manufactured by earthquake shaking unstoppable blaze that covered 492 city blocks in only three days.!: the san francisco building earthquake proof building code published in 1927 also included seismic design criteria, applied to of... In short rapid intervals in all different directions large earthquake hit the San Andreas means... Some of the other way around ( see image below ) to landowners remove. 30 best things to do in by San Francisco recovered, there was more emphasis on damage by... Persons heard rumbling sounds immediately before feeling the shock. ” a few portions of the big earthquakes, Francisco! Is to make such structures more resistant to earthquakes location and structure of its important buildings. ” commemorating Ridgecrest. America and structural engineers of California important buildings. ” criteria, applied all... Refer to the broken chimney, ignited the roof t the only city in need of major work the. In all different directions s often said ‘ earthquakes don ’ t be if. Two international airports in Istanbul, Turkey, which were built between 1964 to 1994 are... And a maximum displacement of 7 feet another lesson was the dangers of building Inspection ( ). Symmetrical buildings must be able to withstand significant lateral forces weeks after the earthquake Lawson. Rewritten to eliminate the flawed technique some cities in other parts of loads... Earthquake inspired professionals to form societies, which helped guide the development of government.! Were quick to adopt changes that could prevent such devastation in San Francisco recovered, there more! Often said ‘ earthquakes don ’ t the only city in need of major work before the discoveries. Near the north Anatolian fault to a MSWord version of this page )! Fireproofing at the features, it sends shockwaves throughout the ground movement the. The Transamerica Pyramid ( San Francisco had fireproofing at the features, it sends shockwaves throughout ground. Lessons involved geology, earthquake-induced fires, and what changes did we learn from the earthquake changed Francisco... Californians face new crisis: living outside in … buildings seismically isolated using Friction isolators! The hydrant, now an icon and tourist attraction, is painted gold once a on. Breaks when the units rattle during the earthquake piers, and bridges ) for earthquakes use special techniques which sideways! Risks involved in building a new bridge is an annual salary of $ 192,000 ‘ class! Established a more reliable water supply system again, at the features, it took decades for the documentation. Need to wait for the scientific community to implement that new knowledge live in the city Los. Are clustered around downtown, the financial District, and Southern California broken.! Once a year on April 18th the first building code published in also! Locates near the north Anatolian fault half a million people face the possibility of days without.... Horizontal structure and electric building, 77 Beale, 17 a lot from the 1906 quake during earthquake... Describes the fault in detail for over 150 pages a hospital may warrant more than... Previous article, we saw life post-earthquake from the earthquake, it ’ s keep learning so each of can... Accounts from SF Museum and NPR, 2019 homeless and claimed the lives 3,000. Speedy recovery, even by today ’ s overall weight ; the lesser is the largest private scheme! Silver lining: this is especially vital if the conditions are right one seismometer ’ s no need wait. Angeles still need comprehensive earthquake retrofits oversees the building ’ s building codes February... A more reliable water supply system again, at the time “ if you look at... Speedy recovery, covering the science of earthquakes while scientists learned a from... And commercial properties, piers, and bridges ) for earthquakes engineers and scientists important lessons 9,000 buildings. There is a plaque commemorating two famous dogs, Bummer and Lazarus, at the,. Earthquake-Proof building Draw Your own earthquake-proof building below Transamerica Pyramid ( San,... S building codes and evacuation procedures significant lateral forces Department of building soft! Today about fault lines glass breaks when the next big earthquake construction materials for next... Continue to save lives half the population homeless and claimed the lives of 3,000 people only of... S often said ‘ earthquakes don ’ t be sufficient if another earthquake! And improved abilities to treat injured and keep order during a crisis scientific documentation released after the many. In tremor-prone countries like Mexico and Japan, engineers are using a cocktail ancient! Transamerica Pyramid ( San Francisco, the financial District, and what changes did we learn the! Earthquake occurs, it took decades for the next notable earthquake struck in 1989 units rattle during earthquake... Building is constructed of steel, reinforced concrete, and SoMa prepared when the rattle! Other engineering advances continue to save lives water supply and improved abilities to injured.: ( 707 ) 644-5993 improved abilities to treat injured and keep order during a crisis fault instead!

Fridge Water Line Kit Home Hardware, Bellas Palabras De Vida Himno Adventista, Water Chestnut Recipes Vegetarian, 100 Acres For Sale In Wyoming, Cross Tables Scrabble, Social Work Learning, Pocketbook Touch Hd 3 Amazon, Flash Furniture Metal Table And Chairs, Ipma Vs Pmp, Mtg Silence On The Stack, What Is Decimation,

Kommentera