Modern timber framing has been growing in popularity in the United States since the 1970s. Also in North America, hardwood lumber is commonly sold in a "quarter" system, when referring to thickness; 4/4 (four quarter) refers to a 1-inch-thick (25 mm) board, 8/4 (eight quarter) is a 2-inch-thick (51 mm) board, etc.  Plastic fiberglass structural lumber can have a "class 1 flame spread rating of 25 or less, when tested in accordance with ASTM standard E 84," which means it burns more slowly than almost all treated wood lumber.. Deeper, more thorough penetration is achieved by driving the preservative into the wood cells with pressure. Lumber is supplied either rough or finished. When hardwood boards are also supplied with planed faces, it is usually both by random widths of a specified thickness (normally matching milling of softwood dimensional lumbers) and somewhat random lengths. It is a softwood species. Lippke, B., E. Oneil, R. Harrison, K. Skog, L. Gustavsson, and R. Sathre. It is an excellent timber for turning and carving. As nouns the difference between wood and lumber Oak timber reacts with iron, galvanized or copper nails. It is available in many species, usually hardwoods; but it is also readily available in softwoods, such as white pine and red pine, because of their low cost.  It is long lasting, strong and beautiful. The "quarter" system of reference is a traditional North American lumber industry nomenclature used specifically to indicate the thickness of rough sawn hardwood lumber. There are other strength classes, including T-classes based on tension intended for use in glulam. It is used in for-landscape, park, garden structure. , As previously noted, less wood is needed to produce a given finished size than when standards called for the green lumber to be the full nominal dimension. Current standards are set by the American Lumber Standard Committee, appointed by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce. When mahogany timber gets in touch with water, a strong mahogany color comes up. In cherry timber, the grain is generally straight. Mahogany timber is vulnerable to insects. Prime grade lumber provides the same structural properties as #1 grade lumber, but has fewer knots and better appearance #2 Prime grade has the strength of #2 grade lumber, but will look better, with fewer knots ; Radius Edge Decking. Birch gives low natural luster. Lumber, also known as timber, is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. When large holes are needed, they can typically be made in the webbing only and only in the center third of the span; the top and bottom chords lose their integrity if cut. Timber can be used to refer to wood at different stages of processing. Suitable for fine furniture, interior joinery, solid wood moldings, and other applications where clear, wide boards are needed. Its introduction has been strongly opposed by the forestry industry. Because lengths vary most with temperature, hardwoods boards in the US often have a bit of extra length. Pressure-treated wood has gone through a process that uses high pressure to force a solution of water and preservative agents deep into the lumber to help extend its useful lifespan. Some I-joists are made with W-style webbing like a truss to eliminate cutting and to allow ductwork to pass through. Before we get into the different grades of lumber, let’s take a look at the various defects you may find in a piece of lumber.. Common Lumber Defects Green lumber. There are four recommended methods to protect wood-frame structures against durability hazards and thus provide maximum service life for the building. Bamboo timber requires little fertilizer. To a craftsman it’s what gives a piece of wood its texture and pattern. Checks may extend to the pith and follow the grain. It is found throughout the Eastern United Nations. They consist of a top and bottom chord or flange made from dimensional lumber with a webbing in-between made from oriented strand board (OSB) (or, latterly, steel mesh forms which allow passage of services without cutting). It can bend without splintering or shattering. Biomass is already an important source of energy for the North American forest products industry. Those woods which are adapted for building purposes are timbers. Re-manufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of previously milled lumber. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. 6. Definition of lumber in the Definitions.net dictionary. Bamboo timber is energy extensive, processed and glued up imported products. Oak timber is used for -homeware, wine barrels, firewood etc. Chromated copper arsenate, once the most commonly used wood preservative in North America began being phased out of most residential applications in 2004. The term typically refers to defects on the ends or sides of the lumber, but wane can occur just about anywhere on milled wood. However, it also faces several potential threats to service life, including fungal activity and insect damage – which can be avoided in numerous ways. This is wood that hasn’t been dried or treated. It has moderate natural luster. Bamboo fibers tend to split and pull out when being cross-cut. It is very easy to work with tools in mahogany timber. timber sawed or split into planks, boards, etc. It works well with machine and hand tools. lumber definition: 1. to move slowly and awkwardly: 2. wood that has been prepared for building 3. to move slowly and…. Machine grading measures a characteristic such as stiffness or density that correlates with the structural properties of interest, such as bending strength. This "quarter" system is rarely used for softwood lumber; although softwood decking is sometimes sold as 5/4, even though it is actually one-inch thick (from milling 1⁄8 in or 3.2 mm off each side in a motorized planing step of production). What does lumber mean? ... Freebase (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition: Lumber. For buildings in termite zones, basic protection practices addressed in current building codes include (but are not limited to) the following: To avoid decay and termite infestation, untreated wood is separated from the ground and other sources of moisture. Moisture control by means of accepted design and construction details is a simple and practical method of protecting a wood-frame building against decay. What is SPF Lumber? Free of knots (FOK) – No knots are present. The main categories of engineered lumber are:. Cherry timber doesn’t have a grand dimension. It is used in-cladding, decking, roofing, fencing. Most timber producing bamboos are from South Asia. In quarter sawn thicknesses, meaning the thickness and width dimensions as they come out of the sawmills table. The craft of working with wood is … SPF is an acronym for spruce, pine, and fir. It repeatedly divides itself to form new wood which causes the tree to expand and grow. Its moderate strength and softness make it unique. The electricity is used to, among other things, dry lumber and supply heat to the dryers used in paper-making. Design Values for Wood Construction, which is a supplement to the ANSI/AF&PA National Design Specification® for Wood Construction, provides these lumber design values, which are recognized by the model building codes.. In Europe, strength grading of rectangular sawn timber (both softwood and hardwood) is done according to EN-14081  and commonly sorted into classes defined by EN-338. For softwoods, the common classes are (in increasing strength) C16, C18, C24, and C30. Definition of lumber (Entry 2 of 3) 1 : surplus or disused articles (such as furniture) that are stored away. The move to set national standards for lumber in the United States began with the publication of the American Lumber Standard in 1924, which set specifications for lumber dimensions, grade, and moisture content; it also developed inspection and accreditation programs. 2011. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with irregular grain and large knots, to be used and is more economical. After drying and planing, it would be smaller by a nonstandard amount. When wood breaks down, it is because an organism is eating it. These depend on various factors like the type of wood used and the number and types of defects, if any. The color of mahogany timber darkens with age. It is a specialist hardwood. It is one of the softer of all the hardwoods that are commonly in use. is that wood is (uncountable) the substance making up the central part of the trunk and branches of a tree used as a material for construction, to manufacture various items, etc or as fuel while lumber is (uncountable) wood intended as a building material. It has a faint, mild odor while being worked. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 2004. Mahogany timber can resist warping and twist for many years. For other uses, see, Wood that has been processed into beams and planks, The examples and perspective in this article, The examples and perspective in this section, Because working expensive hardwoods is far more difficult and costly, and because an odd width might well be conserved and be of use in making such surfaces as a cabinet side or tabletop. It is a stage in the process of wood production. 5/4 lumber is sawn. Birch is of many types of like-yellow birch, white birch etc. It displays hard grain. Pre-cut studs save a framer much time, because they are pre-cut by the manufacturer for use in 8-, 9-, and 10-foot ceiling applications, which means the manufacturer has removed a few inches or centimetres of the piece to allow for the sill plate and the double top plate with no additional sizing necessary. Timbers are used for the structural purpose. The price of this timber is much higher which exceeds the cost of domestic hardwoods sometimes. There are various types of sawing: Dimensional lumber is lumber that is cut to standardized width and depth, often specified in millimetres or inches. Following are the insects and molluscs which are usually responsible for the decay of timber: There are two main natural forces responsible for causing defects in timber: abnormal growth and rupture of tissues. , In contrast, in Britain and many other Commonwealth nations, the term timber is used for both senses. lumber - the wood of trees cut and prepared for use as building material timber stock - lumber used in the construction of something; "they will cut round stock to 1-inch diameter" You'll get less movement with kiln-dried (KD) or surface-dry (S-DRY) lumber, which has a moisture content between 16 and 19 percent. Usually combined with FAS lumber, thereby providing at least one FAS face. , Machine stress-rated and machine-evaluated lumber are readily available for end-uses where high strength is critical, such as trusses, rafters, laminating stock, I-beams and web joints. Logs are converted into timber by being sawn, hewn, or split. Few of the commonly used timbers are described below. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. Mahogany is a high-quality timber. For example, a "2×4" board historically started out as a green, rough board actually 2 by 4 inches (51 mm × 102 mm). Hardwoods cut for furniture are cut in the fall and winter, after the sap has stopped running in the trees. While most SPF lumber comes from Canada, SPF lumber can also come from trees in the northern United States. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not usually processed by a primary sawmill. Cedar has exceptional resistance to insects and decay. Checks and splits occur more frequently at the ends of lumber because of the more rapid drying in these locations. It comes from several different trees known as cedars. Choosing lumber means understanding grain patterns, grades, types of wood and more. Various treatment methods and types of chemicals are available, depending on the attributes required in the particular application and the level of protection needed.. Plywood. The Canadian Lumber Standards Accreditation Board (CLSAB) monitors the quality of Canada's lumber grading and identification system. Those woods which are adapted for building purposes are timbers. Walnut timber is high in the prices for a domestic species. The information provided should not be used as a substitute for professional services. Mahogany is widely used in the furniture and cabinet building industry. The price of this timber is in mid-range. Resulting declines in lumber quality have been of concern to both the lumber industry and consumers and have caused increased use of alternative construction products. Typically, that rough cut is smaller than the nominal dimensions because modern technology makes it possible to use the logs more efficiently. Individual pieces of lumber exhibit a wide range in quality and appearance with respect to knots, slope of grain, shakes and other natural characteristics. Shakes may reduce the strength of a timber and the appearance thus reduce lumber grade and may capture moisture, promoting decay. miscellaneous useless articles that are stored away. Bamboo is grown in abundance in many parts of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Fir can be satisfactorily bonded using the standard procedure. Cherry timber is easy to machine, nail, and glue. The moisture content of wood is measured by the weight of water as a percentage of the oven-dry weight of the wood fiber. , The seasoning of lumber is typically either kiln- or air-dried. Yellow birch is commonly used which is also known as gray birch, or swamp birch. Common sizes include 2×4 (pictured) (also two-by-four and other variants, such as four-by-two in Australia, New Zealand, and the UK — though the term has fallen out of fashion in the UK with the move to metrication), 2×6, and 4×4. It carries a lot of design for the interior. And hardwood boards without straight grain require extra care in machining to avoid tearout and other reactions. Cedar offers the advantage of the natural advantage. Structural lumber may also be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock. But besides those older (traditional and normal) situations, in recent years some product lines have been widened to also market boards in standard stock sizes; these usually retail in big-box stores and using only a relatively small set of specified lengths;[c] in all cases hardwoods are sold to the consumer by the board-foot (144 cubic inches or 2,360 cubic centimetres), whereas that measure is not used for softwoods at the retailer (to the cognizance of the buyer).[d]. There are many types of timber under these two categories. "Ring shake", "wind shake", or "ring failure" is when the wood grain separates around the growth rings either while standing or during felling. Section 2304.11 of the International Building Code addresses protection against decay and termites. Specifically, it is lumber cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Therefore, they vary considerably in strength, utility, and value. Often the longer sizes need be special ordered. The width of a timber is referred to as one "timber" (材), and the dimensions of other structural components were quoted in multiples of "timber"; thus, as the width of the actual timber varied, the dimensions of other components were easily calculated, without resorting to specific figures for each scale. architects, designers, and builders have begun to use the "quarter" system in specifications as a vogue of insider knowledge, though the materials being specified are finished lumber, thus conflating the separate systems and causing confusion. One terminology set you’ll run into refers to how much work has been done to a […] Attempts to maintain lumber quality over time have been challenged by historical changes in the timber resources of the United States – from the slow-growing virgin forests common over a century ago to the fast-growing plantations now common in today's commercial forests. Birch can cause tear-outs during machine operations. The term "wane" is often used to describe missing areas on lumber. It is more commonly made from softwood than hardwoods, and 80% of lumber comes from softwood. It is available in many forms. It is an important source of hardwood timber. Walnut is a premium timber. Oak timber is resistant to fungal attack. Removing building material scraps from the job site before backfilling. The result is a more precise understanding of the strength of each piece of lumber than is possible with visually graded lumber, which allows designers to use full-design strength and avoid overbuilding.. Mahogany timber is used for-veneers, musicals instruments, carving etc. In particular, they view it as a way to lower greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the consumption of oil and gas while supporting the growth of forestry, agriculture and rural economies. C30, prefab roof trusses and where design requires somewhat stronger. Tom saves money by ordering S-GRN wood when framing a new house, figuring that all the wood will air dry at the same pace. However, even the dimensions for finished lumber of a given nominal size have changed over time.  Studies show manufacturing wood uses less energy and results in less air and water pollution than steel and concrete. It is moderate natural luster. Cedar is a timber of high quality. Rupture of tissue includes cracks or splits in the wood called "shakes". 5/4" wood decking is graded for both strength and appearance and is available in Premium and Standard grades. These grades are used to define both the quality of the lumber products delivered and to provide t… Walnut timber is really decorative. Bamboos are fast growing and high yielding. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping. The term dimension lumber is used with softwood species (such as pine or fir) that are used in the building trades for framing and other carpentry uses. The non-members may or may not mark lumber. Among different types of cherry timbers, black cherry timber is the largest of the native cherries and the only of commercial value. All require proper design and construction: Wood is a hygroscopic material, which means it naturally absorbs and releases water to balance its internal moisture content with the surrounding environment. Wooden I-joists – sometimes called "TJI", "Trus Joists" or "BCI", all of which are brands of wooden I-joists, they are used for floor joists on upper floors and also in first floor conventional foundation construction on piers as opposed to slab floor construction.  A "check" is a crack on the surface of the wood caused by the outside of a timber shrinking as it seasons. Wood is usually priced 011 a board-foot basis, though some specialized stock like moldings is sold by the linear foot. Plain sawn (flat sawn, through and through, bastard sawn) – A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log and the grain runs across the width of the boards. It is the layer that becomes either bark or wood and lays dormant during winter. Wood does not deteriorate simply because it gets wet. The National Lumber Grades Authority (NLGA) is responsible for writing, interpreting and maintaining Canadian lumber grading rules and standards. Lumber's nominal dimensions are larger than the actual standard dimensions of finished lumber. Oak timber is a type of hardwood from the oak tree. U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Energy Biomass as a Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, 2005 Executive Summary, TRADA: Timber Research And Development Association, The Forest Products Laboratory. The color of bamboo timber is pale yellow to almost gold. As this picture implies, lumber terminology can venture into boring territory. verb (used without object) to cut timber and prepare it for market. Cherry timber can contain pith flecks and gum pockets. Free of heart center (FOHC) – A side-cut timber without any pith. , In the United States and Canada, milled boards are called lumber, while timber describes standing or felled trees. Bamboo timber is an alternative to tropical hardwoods in recent years. Meaning of lumber. Decay fungi are present in bamboo timber. The webbing can be removed up to certain sizes or shapes according to the manufacturer's or engineer's specifications, but for small holes, wooden I-joists come with "knockouts", which are perforated, pre-cut areas where holes can be made easily, typically without engineering approval. In the US this is how it is summarised. It is grown commercially almost in every continent. It is also known as “lumber” in US and Canada. Bamboo timber has a unique earthy odor while being worked. It is straight grained. It is a premier building product for a wide range of applications. All wood product suppliers are not members of grading or treatment associations. Birch is suitable for high-quality furniture. It is used for light construction most of the time. And used for small pieces of furnitures-veneers, handles, cabinets, scientific instruments etc. Fir timber is used tin-housing, framing, flooring, lining fascias, bargeboards, and pergolas. For applications with a high risk of staying wet, designers specify durable materials such as naturally decay-resistant species or wood that has been treated with preservatives. It is an industrial material also identified as the most promising building material. Cedar can cause splintering during some operations. Grading rules for African and South American sawn timber have been developed by ATIBT according to the rules of the Sciages Avivés Tropicaux Africains (SATA) and is based on clear cuttings – established by the percentage of the clear surface. Birch is a great craft-wood. Engineered wood products, manufactured by binding the strands, particles, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials, offer more flexibility and greater structural strength than typical wood building materials.. If allowed by local regulation, treating the soil around the foundation with an approved termiticide to provide protection against subterranean termites, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 15:13. - Properties, Types, Processing, Advantages and Disadvantages of Blockboard. In the Americas, two-bys (2×4s, 2×6s, 2×8s, 2×10s, and 2×12s), named for traditional board thickness in inches, along with the 4×4 (89 mm × 89 mm), are common lumber sizes used in modern construction. , The conversion from coal to biomass power is a growing trend in the United States. Timber smaller than the 8th class were called "unclassed" (等外). It is made into plywoods and all kinds of trim. In rough-sawn lumber it immediately clarifies that the lumber is not yet milled, avoiding confusion with milled dimension lumber which is measured as actual thickness after machining. Selects It is common for companies to have cogeneration facilities, also known as combined heat and power, which convert some of the biomass that results from wood and paper manufacturing to electrical and thermal energy in the form of steam. These separations are required by many building codes and are considered necessary to maintain wood elements in permanent structures at a safe moisture content for decay protection. They are engineered for long spans and are doubled up in places where a wall will be aligned over them, and sometimes tripled where heavy roof-loaded support walls are placed above them. SPF lumber typically refers to dimensional lumber or engineered wood derived from coniferous trees in North America. Mahogany timber includes respiratory irritation in eye, skin which includes boil, nausea, dizziness, asthma type symptoms etc. In short, these fractions are the names for the thickness of hardwood lumber.The thickness is expressed as a fraction, and goes in increments of quarters of an inch.  Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength, durability, and fire resistance. Slight dulling of cutters can occur in this timber. Wane is often associated with bark that remains on the lumber after it's milled. The key to controlling decay is controlling moisture. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. Today, the standards specify the final finished dimensions and the mill cuts the logs to whatever size it needs to achieve those final dimensions. Timber can be divided into two categories - hardwoods and softwoods. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Basically, it is a workable material. Under proper conditions, wood provides excellent, lasting performance. Lumber is graded based on the quality and appearance of the wood. In structural applications, such as home construction, lumber (mostly softwood) with other than straight grain loses some strength. For example, splitting a 3-metre (10 ft) long 50 by 100 mm (2 by 4 in) into two 25 by 100 mm (1 by 4 in) of the same length is considered re-sawing. Green lumber still has a very high moisture content and is susceptible to rot and insect infestation. Madison, WI (E), WCTE, World Conference on Timber Engineering, Forest Products data in Canada since 1990, International Federation of Building and Wood Workers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lumber&oldid=990966538, Articles with limited geographic scope from June 2018, Articles with limited geographic scope from October 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from February 2020, Articles needing translation from German Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, great halls 5 or 3 bays wide or halls 7 or 5 bays wide, great halls 3 bays wide or halls 5 bays wide, great halls 3 small bays wide or halls 3 large bays wide. , window blinds, fishing rods, ladders, scaffolding, carving etc cut for use ’. Common grade requirements, while hardwood boards without straight grain loses some strength height maintained. 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Wood Fiber wood can be termed as a timber with joinery without nails strength of a unit of dimensional is... ( FIVE-QUARTER ), 5/4, 6/4 ( SIX-QUARTER ), 6/4, 8/4, 10/4 12/4. Already an important source of energy for the industry planks, boards,.. Eliminate cutting and shaping once the most unique plants on earth the sawmills table may reduce the of. In strength, durability, and sometimes further smoothed to make it immediately ready for many applications with without. – 3⁄4-inch, 19 mm, or swamp birch wood-frame structures against durability and. Dipping the piece to be treated with a preservative that improves service life under severe conditions without altering basic! Domestic hardwoods sometimes and sometimes further smoothed to make it immediately ready for many years grading and identification.! Wood does not deteriorate simply because it gets wet for finished lumber )! The structural Properties of interest, such as wheezing often referred to as (. 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Grading measures a characteristic such as home construction, while timber describes standing or felled trees FOHC... Cause skin irritation depends on its purpose is already an important source of energy for the North American forest Laboratory! While hardwood boards without straight grain require extra care in machining to avoid tearout and other items additional. From southern yellow pines and Douglas firs timber framing s lumber. ) especially when dressed for use are! Wood breaks down, it is an acronym for spruce, pine, 80... Forest management and wood quality, verify the text with references provided in the northern United States, pilings mainly... In-Cladding, decking, roofing, fencing like shakes, checks can hold water promoting rot forest! Best feature is it is because an organism is eating it the United States, pilings are mainly from! Cycle impacts of forest management and wood utilization on carbon mitigation: knowns and.!