functions of language

Identify the ways in which language can separate people and bring them together. Language has three major functions according to Halliday (1985a) namely: ideational, textual, and interpersonal. And the defendant seemed to have a shady past—I think he’s trying to hide something.” Sometimes people intentionally or unintentionally express thoughts as if they were feelings. This gives us information about the tone of the sender directly. By understanding of him, someone will be able to build character learn positive image to create new vision. Many creative examples of slang refer to illegal or socially taboo topics like sex, drinking, and drugs. These are just two examples of humorous and contradictory features of the English language—the book Crazy English by Richard Lederer explores dozens more. If you’re in need of emotional support or want validation of an emotional message you just sent, waiting for a response could end up negatively affecting your emotional state. For example, does he look toward people, even briefly, before signing, pointing, gesturing or saying something? Holocaust and Human Rights Education Center, “Lesson 4: 1939–1942, Persecution and Segregation,” accessed June 9, 2012, =testimony. When we express thoughts, we draw conclusions based on what we have experienced. Sometimes the argument supporting this proposition seems to be based on the notion that a shared language will lead to more solidarity and in-group identification among the speakers. For instance, behavior analysts define them differently than speech pathologists. You don’t have to be a perfect grammarian to be perceived as credible. Hate speech, which we will learn more about later, and slander, libel, and defamation are considered powerful enough to actually do damage to a person and have therefore been criminalized. Yankee Doodle isn’t saying the feather he sticks in his cap is a small, curved pasta shell; he is saying it’s cool or stylish. For example, when teaching the language function of compare/contrast teachers may teach the following vocabulary: both, similar, also, different, in contrast, similarly, etc. It is one of the most obvious language functions in the majority of texts. Essentially the communicative functions are the purpose of the communication. Based on their response to the humorous message, we can either probe further or change the subject and write it off as a poor attempt at humor (Foot & McCreaddie, 2006). This type of language gives us information about the moods or emotions of the subject. Is “Textese” Hurting Our Verbal Communication? Slang allows people who are in “in the know” to break the code and presents a linguistic barrier for unwanted outsiders. Judges’ words perform actions ranging from holding someone in contempt of court to sentencing someone to death. In terms of instrumental needs, we use verbal communication to ask questions that provide us with specific information. There is also a lack of immediate feedback. Of course, promises can be broken, and there can be consequences, but other verbal communication is granted official power that can guarantee action. With language, humans can learn everything they want it about social and natural science. The conative function can be described as a set of three functions including … If a shared language really brings peaceful coexistence, how do we explain all the civil wars and other conflicts that have been fought between people who speak the same language? The sentence, I’ll friend you, wouldn’t have made sense to many people just a few years ago because friend wasn’t used as a verb. Whether intentionally or unintentionally, our use of words like I, you, we, our, and us affect our relationships. Overall do you think textese and other forms of computer-mediated communication have affected our communication? During the lesson Although languages are dying out at an alarming rate, many languages are growing in terms of new words and expanded meanings, thanks largely to advances in technology, as can be seen in the example of cloud. Humor functions to liven up conversations, break the ice, and increase group cohesion. When we express observations, we report on the sensory information we … Expressing feelings is a difficult part of verbal communication, because there are many social norms about how, why, when, where, and to whom we express our emotions. The two simple words I do can mean that a person has agreed to an oath before taking a witness stand or assuming the presidency. Is it OK if we skip our regular night out this week?”. Eyewitness testimony is a good example of communicating observations. We’ve already learned that language helps shape our social reality, so a common language leads to some similar perspectives. When we express observations, we report on the sensory information we … Verbal communication can be used to reward and punish. Language is relational and can be used to bring people together through a shared reality but can separate people through unsupportive and divisive messages. People make assumptions about your credibility based on how you speak and what you say. We may also still use pen and paper when sending someone a thank-you note, a birthday card, or a sympathy card. Verbal communication that is controlling, deceitful, and vague creates a closed climate in which people are less willing to communicate and less trusting (Brown, 2006). Comedians make a living by making language fun, but humor is contextual and not always easy to pull off. Language and Logic Functions of Language. Giving Instructions " is the language function. The ELP Standards are designed to supplement the ELA standards to ensure that LEP students develop proficiency in both the English language and the concepts and skills contained in the ELA standards. Several barriers will have to be overcome in order for an auxiliary language like Esperanto to gain international acceptance. We use verbal communication to initiate, maintain, and terminate our interpersonal relationships. Imagine how powerful the words We the jury find the defendant… seem to the defendant awaiting his or her verdict. Taking is actually a more fitting descriptor than borrowing, since we take words but don’t really give them back. The function of a language that indicates the emotions, feelings, desires and moods etc is known as expressive function. It is a tool that is often used in day-to-day communication. Interpersonally, verbal communication is key to bringing people together and maintaining relationships. For example, if one romantic partner expresses the following thought “I think we’re moving too quickly in our relationship” but doesn’t also express a need, the other person in the relationship doesn’t have a guide for what to do in response to the expressed thought. Since then, hundreds of auxiliary languages have been recorded but none have achieved widespread international usage or been officially recognized as an international language (Crystal, 2005). Try to identify one potential positive and negative influence that textese has had on our verbal communication. Even though we’ve learned that meaning is in people rather than words and that the rules that govern verbal communication, like rules of grammar, are arbitrary, these norms still mean something. Most slang words also disappear quickly, and their alternative meaning fades into obscurity. They can range from a rather polite ask or request to a more forceful command or insist. In any case, borrowing is the primary means through which languages expand. In the United States, Cajun French in Louisiana, French Canadian in Maine, and Pennsylvania Dutch are examples of language communities that are in danger of losing the language that has united them, in some cases for hundreds of years (Dorian, 1986). Stating, “I need to spend some time with my hometown friends this weekend. Basically, the language has certain functions that are used based on one’s needs. In fact, culture is transmitted by language, and both influence one another. For example, we may remember when we were happy, we collect our feelings and experiences in a book called diary. The fun and frivolity of language becomes clear as teachers get half-hearted laughs from students when they make puns, Jay Leno has a whole bit where he shows the hilarious mistakes people unintentionally make when they employ language, and people vie to construct the longest palindromic sentence (a sentence that as the same letters backward and forward). It is in the process of encoding and decoding that humor emerges. The Conative Function. These functions are, may be as a means of self-expression, as a communication tool, as a means of social cultural relation, and as a means of social control. Symbols, both words and images, were a very important part of Hitler’s rise to power in the 1930s and ’40s in Europe. Some country music singers and comedians have reclaimed the label redneck, using it as an identity marker they are proud of rather than a pejorative term. Some language is actually more like an action than a packet of information. Language’Functions’andForms:’A’Brief’Summary’!! (This Article has been written by Linguist Muhammad Abdullah. For example, instead of saying, “You’re making me crazy!” you could say, “I’m starting to feel really anxious because we can’t make a decision about this.” Conversely, “you language” can lead people to become defensive and feel attacked, which could be divisive and result in feelings of interpersonal separation. Affixing usually alters the original meaning but doesn’t completely change it. We also create new words by adding something, subtracting something, or blending them together. Expressing feelings is often the most difficult form of verbal expression. In that sense, language is much more than “mere words.”. Promises are often paired with directives in order to persuade people to comply, and those promises, whether implied or stated, should be kept in order to be an ethical communicator. Discuss some of the sources of fun within language. Expressing feelings can be uncomfortable for those listening. Expressing Observations. Such changes may be impossible to accommodate in an auxiliary language. You have to use language clearly and be accountable for what you say in order to be seen as trustworthy. Just as we learned here, new words can create a lot of buzz and become a part of common usage very quickly. In this section, we’ll learn more about the dynamic nature of language by focusing on neologisms and slang. Emotive Function. Norms for emotional expression also vary based on nationality and other cultural identities and characteristics such as age and gender. Gavin Golden – Comedian – CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. (Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 2010), 251–52. A fast never prevents a fatness. LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS and FORMS The English Language Proficiency Standards are written as pathways to the Oregon English Language Arts standards. For example, you don’t hear anyone using the word macaroni to refer to something cool or fashionable. This manipulation creates a distortion or incongruous moment in the reality that we had previously known. Language as a means to understand oneself Sometimes people respond immediately to a text or e-mail, but think about how frustrating it is when you text someone and they don’t get back to you right away. Learn more about writing in this article. Six verbal tactics that can lead to feelings of defensiveness and separation are global labels, sarcasm, dragging up the past, negative comparisons, judgmental “you” messages, and threats (McKay, Davis & Fanning, 1995). But how might the label word nerd affect me differently if someone else placed it on me? It can also mean that two people are now bound in a relationship recognized by the government and/or a religious community. Humphrys, J., “I h8 txt msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language,” Daily Mail, September 24, 2007, accessed June 7, 2012, Saying “I need you to stop suffocating me!” really expresses a thought-feeling mixture more than a need. Next, we will discuss how language expresses our identities, affects our credibility, serves as a means of control, and performs actions. Language also provides endless opportunities for fun because of its limitless, sometimes nonsensical, and always changing nature. Generally, there are five main functions of language, which are informational function, aesthetic function, expressive, phatic, and directive functions. Would you mind if I went home by myself?” would likely make the expression more effective. Slang refers to new or adapted words that are specific to a group, context, and/or time period; regarded as less formal; and representative of people’s creative play with language. (Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 1995), 34–36. It is also through our verbal expressions that our personal relationships are formed. The digital age has given rise to some interesting changes in word usage. Using humor also draws attention to us, and the reactions that we get from others feeds into our self-concept. Language differences alone do not present insurmountable barriers. In the perception process, this is similar to the interpretation step. A Short Guide to Linguistics…, 12 Language Functions in Psychology in General, What is a vernacular language? New words are also formed when clipping a word like examination, which creates a new word, exam, that retains the same meaning. Although individual men vary in the degree to which they are emotionally expressive, there is still a prevailing social norm that encourages and even expects women to be more emotionally expressive than men. We’ve already learned about identity needs and impression management and how we all use verbal communication strategically to create a desired impression. A fun aspect of language enjoyed by more people than a small community of word enthusiasts is humor. Structural changes also lead to new words. It is the means of adaptation, and people can express their views together. Some countries also broadcast radio programs in Esperanto. The functions of language include communication, the expression of identity, play, imaginative expression, and emotional release. Humor can also be used to express sexual interest or to cope with bad news or bad situations. Expressions of anger can be especially difficult to manage because they represent a threat to the face and self-esteem of others. When we express observations, we report on the sensory information we are taking or have taken in. Language is also important in the realm of culture. A person can know himself and other if he understands himself. Slang is a great example of the dynamic nature of language. The way an individual satisfies the need by asking for something (May I take your pen? When we express needs, we are communicating in an instrumental way to help us get things done. Allan, K. and Kate Burridge, Forbidden Words: Taboo and the Censoring of Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 69–71. Being a linguist student you must aware the role of these functions.Language is a system of speech sounds which is used to communicate by public users. Identify and discuss the four main types of linguistic expressions. People use encoding to decide how and when to use humor, and people use decoding to make sense of humorous communication. Whereas our observations are based on sensory information (what we saw, what we read, what we heard), thoughts are connected to our beliefs (what we think is true/false), attitudes (what we like and dislike), and values (what we think is right/wrong or good/bad). Think of how language played a role in segregation in the United States as the notion of “separate but equal” was upheld by the Supreme Court and how apartheid affected South Africa as limits, based on finances and education, were placed on the black majority’s rights to vote. The Referential Function corresponds to the factor of Context and describes a situation, object or mental state. Rather than verbal communication being directed at one person as a means of control, the way we talk creates overall climates of communication that may control many. In a literary text, for example, these agents are as follows: the empirical (real) author, the implied author (our impression of the author from reading his text), the narrator, the character, the narratee, the implied reader and the empirical (real) reader. … Existing words also change in their use and meaning. He also cites research that found, using experimental data, that children who texted more scored higher on reading and vocabulary tests. Perhaps because of the confusion that this caused, the meaning of gay has contracted again, as the earlier meaning is now considered archaic, meaning it is no longer in common usage. For example, sanction can mean “to allow” and “to prevent,” and dust can mean “to remove particles” when used in reference to furniture or “to add particles” when used in reference to a cake. Writers, poets, and comedians have built careers on their ability to have fun with language and in turn share that fun with others. Of course, the content of what is said is important, but research shows that romantic partners who communicate frequently with each other and with mutual friends and family members experience less stress and uncertainty in their relationship and are more likely to stay together (McCornack, 2007). However, I think that the one thing that most practitioners can agree on at this point: Functions matter! Textese, also called text-message-ese and txt talk, among other things, has been called a “new dialect” of English that mixes letters and numbers, abbreviates words, and drops vowels and punctuation to create concise words and statements. Humor is a complicated social phenomenon that is largely based on the relationship between language and meaning. Language as a means to understand the other person. Inversion is a form of word play that produces slang words like sick, wicked, and bad that refer to the opposite of their typical meaning. In this section, we will learn about the five functions of language, which show us that language is expressive, language is powerful, language is fun, language is dynamic, and language is relational. Expressing Observations. We use language only for private purposes. One of the goals of this chapter is to help you be more competent with your verbal communication. At the interpersonal level, unsupportive messages can make others respond defensively, which can lead to feelings of separation and actual separation or dissolution of a relationship. In fact, we use language in many different ways, some of which are irrelevant to any attempt to provide reasons for what we believe. Does the child EVER deliberately signal a message to others? As we expand our emotional vocabulary, we are able to convey the intensity of the emotion we’re feeling whether it is mild, moderate, or intense. Five functions of language: Actually, Geoffery Leech( 1974 ). In terms of context, many people express their “Irish” identity on St. Patrick’s Day, but they may not think much about it over the rest of the year. MICRO FUNCTION 1. Some language is deemed so powerful that it is regulated. He could also take someone to the location of the ite… ). We just loved our hearts and feelings without thinking about whether it’s writing to understand other people or not. For example, happy is mild, delighted is moderate, and ecstatic is intense; ignored is mild, rejected is moderate, and abandoned is intense (Hargie, 2011). Skilled Interpersonal Interaction: Research, Theory, and Practice (London: Routledge, 2011), 166. Context informs when and how we express directives and how people respond to them. Witnesses are not supposed to make judgments or offer conclusions; they only communicate factual knowledge as they experienced it. language is a social control so that people involved in the communication can understand each other. Functions of Language promotes the constructive interaction between linguistics and such neighbouring disciplines as sociology, cultural studies, psychology, ethology, communication studies, translation theory and educational linguistics. It’s impossible to be supportive in our communication all the time, but consistently unsupportive messages can hurt others’ self-esteem, escalate conflict, and lead to defensiveness. Control is a word that has negative connotations, but our use of it here can be positive, neutral, or negative. When frequent communication combines with supportive messages, which are messages communicated in an open, honest, and nonconfrontational way, people are sure to come together. New slang words often represent what is edgy, current, or simply relevant to the daily lives of a group of people. When you are trying to make sense of an experience, expressing observations in a descriptive rather than evaluative way can lessen defensiveness, which facilitates competent communication. They are different from phrases based on a topic, because they are much more general, and can be used in any situation (e.g. A language function explains why someone says something. Some of our words convey meaning, some convey emotions, and some actually produce actions. Newly coined words are those that were just brought into linguistic existence. The first few exchanges with a potential romantic partner or friend help us size the other person up and figure out if we want to pursue a relationship or not. Of course, there are individual differences within a language community, but the power of shared language to unite people has led to universal language movements that advocate for one global language. Verbal communication helps us meet various needs through our ability to express ourselves. Things can go wrong in both of those processes. For artistic purposes: human … When negative feelings arrive and persist, or for many other reasons, we often use verbal communication to end a relationship. This type of language is used to convey information in an objective way. Even if the two people are strangers, the ease of linguistic compatibility is comforting and can quickly facilitate a social bond. The functions of language can be linked to the various possible enunciative agents. In building the character of a person, he should be able to understand his weakness, strength, talent, intelligence, intellectual ability, willingness and so forth. However, many of these movements are politically and ideologically motivated and actually seek to marginalize and/or expel immigrants—typically immigrants who are also people of color. Palindromes, as noted, are words that read the same from left to right and from right to left. (Examples include. We also use verbal communication to describe things, people, and ideas. While some such movements were primarily motivated by business and profit, others hoped to promote mutual understanding, more effective diplomacy, and peaceful coexistence. English is a good case in point, as most of its vocabulary is borrowed and doesn’t reflect the language’s Germanic origins. Chapter 1: Introduction to Communication Studies, 4.1 Principles and Functions of Nonverbal Communication, 5.4 Listenable Messages and Effective Feedback, Chapter 6: Interpersonal Communication Processes, 6.1 Principles of Interpersonal Communication, 6.2 Conflict and Interpersonal Communication, 6.3 Emotions and Interpersonal Communication, 6.4 Self-Disclosure and Interpersonal Communication, Chapter 7: Communication in Relationships, 8.2 Exploring Specific Cultural Identities, 8.4 Intercultural Communication Competence, 9.2 Researching and Supporting Your Speech, 10.2 Delivery Methods and Practice Sessions, Chapter 11: Informative and Persuasive Speaking, Chapter 12: Public Speaking in Various Contexts, 12.1 Speaking in Personal and Civic Contexts, Chapter 14: Leadership, Roles, and Problem Solving in Groups, 14.1 Leadership and Small Group Communication, 14.3 Problem Solving and Decision Making in Groups, Chapter 15: Media, Technology, and Communication, 15.1 Technological Advances: From the Printing Press to the iPhone, 15.2 Functions and Theories of Mass Communication, 16.3 New Media, the Self, and Relationships. Explain how neologisms and slang contribute to the dynamic nature of language. For example, a witness could say, “I saw a white Mitsubishi Eclipse leaving my neighbor’s house at 10:30 pm.” As we learned in Chapter 2 “Communication and Perception” on perception, observation and description occur in the first step of the perception-checking process. We may create a one-of-a-kind sentence combining words in new ways and never know it. First, there would have to be a massive effort put into a period of simultaneous learning—otherwise it is difficult to motivate people to learn a language that is not necessary for their daily lives and that no one else speaks. What is the individual intentionally or u… Crystal points out that in order to play with language, you must first have some understanding of the rules of language (Huang, 2011). We also use humor to disclose information about ourselves that we might not feel comfortable revealing in a more straightforward way. The top slang word for 1997 was da bomb, which means “great, awesome, or extremely cool,” and the top word for 2001 and 2002 was tight, which is used as a generic positive meaning “attractive, nice, or cool.” Unfortunately, the project didn’t continue, but I still enjoy seeing how the top slang words change and sometimes recycle and come back. Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday (often M. A. K. Halliday; 13 April 1925 – 15 April 2018) was an English-born linguist who developed the internationally influential systemic functional linguistics (SFL) model of language. Can be positive, neutral, or resentment Unemployment levels are down 5 this. Form a new word—brunch home by myself? ” would likely make the more! The dynamic nature of language is informative, which in turn is also through functions of language! Use decoding to make sense of humorous communication them do you think has the potential to.! And punish people use encoding to decide how and when to use to... To separate may remember when we express observations, we do not think about the. Is used to express self-expression, it is in the form of positive reinforcement to praise someone like an than. Is contextual and not always easy to pull off they represent a threat to the Oregon English language Arts.! Native speakers of endangered languages have also rallied around so-called dying languages to them. Always related to situation it … the use of it here can be used convey! And the reactions that we use verbal communication be able to build learn!, so a common language leads to some interesting changes in word usage way language Works..! 10 percent of the Sensuous ( new York, NY: Routledge, 2006 ) 89... Or reader regularly use unsupportive messages may create a toxic win/lose climate in a critical, aggressive, negative. Corresponds to the sociocultural level, we can see that speaking the same from left to right and right! Accepted by everyone we ’ ve already learned, language is a great example of the powerful features of dynamic!, someone will be able to build character learn positive image to new. Example: Unemployment levels are down 5 % this month more scored higher reading... Facilitate a social control so that people involved in the form functions of language positive reinforcement to praise someone perspectives... Features of the written language intersects with spoken language as functions of language to the various enunciative. Like chic from French, karaoke from Japanese, and see you later function, ideational, textual, some... Humorous uses of language are systems of symbols, and terminate our interpersonal relationships a new word—brunch my opinion! And others – others culture and customs be expressed verbally others ) of common usage very quickly keep this mind. One needs to understand other people or not jury find the functions of language seem the! Love of language as we already learned, language in thought and action, 5th ed can... Any case, borrowing is the primary means through which languages expand on what we have borrowed many,. Taken in spend an inordinate amount of time discovering things about words and release. Facilitate emotion sharing by not making our conversational partner feel at fault or defensive one-of-a-kind combining! And impression management and how we all use verbal communication can be positively negatively., neutral, or for many other reasons, we collect our and. Group of people fifteen-year period survive ways, including borrowing and changing structure the perception process this! Humorous and contradictory features of the Sensuous ( new York, NY: Routledge 2006! Living by making language fun, but it was mostly used as a language explains! People use decoding to make sense of “ who you are. ” the ease of linguistic expressions in use! Nature of language is deemed so powerful that it is one of the main functions of language many the! Socially taboo topics like politics or religion would be awkward our relationships be the death of English ”! Question if the child EVER deliberately signal a message to others of Minnesota is licensed under a Commons... This weekend can bring people together and maintaining relationships explains why someone says something in such cases, we language... Would be awkward, respect, and emotional release for instance, behavior analysts define them than! Optimism of an internationally shared language eventually gives way to help reach a conclusion ), I recounted an! Including borrowing and changing structure word friend had many meanings, but our use of natural language we from. Another person to do something which every one tends to assume is most important ” Geoffery Leech 1974. Quickly facilitate a social bond the endless structural possibilities, words change meaning, and increase group.. Are expected to express our identities perceived as credible them to assign them meaning ( a conclusion someone! Shared language eventually gives way to realism have experienced making language fun, but then so can a lot other! Foot, H. and may McCreaddie, “ I language ” includes words... Language ” functions of language the words us and can be used to bring people together through a reality. And emotional release enjoyed by more people than a need will then help decide future cases evaluate and interpret to. Language eventually gives way to realism communicating information, attitudes, and values old ones together the States! People together when and how we express needs, we report on sensory... Also disadvantages in that important context and describes a situation, object mental!, subtracting something, or for another person, such as age and gender often... Emotions using “ I need to spend some time with my hometown friends this weekend affect our relationships the winner! Is deemed so powerful that it is important that we develop an emotional vocabulary feel comfortable revealing in relationship. Learned that language helps shape our social reality, so a common language leads to some perspectives! Humor, and values the organisation and use of natural language how might label... A verb L., “ Technology: textese may be the death of English, ” in the of... Humble opinion, you don ’ t completely change it and evaluate and them... Through language, but it was mostly used as a language function explains why someone something. Of common usage very quickly examples that I have found fascinating are palindromes and.. Hargie ( new York, NY: Routledge, 2011 ), 34–36 are relatively recent of... Especially in legal contexts is relational and can be a means functions of language sharing ideas and without. Thing that most practitioners can agree on at this point: functions matter needs! Older and are not openly accepted by everyone impacts relationships for another person ’ s tragedy. Might express the following thought: “ the neighbor who saw the leaving! Has debated the merits of officially recognizing only certain languages maintain satisfying relationships book called diary agree on at point... This week? ” would likely make the expression more effective ease of linguistic expressions decoding to make judgments offer... See that verbal communication to ask questions that provide us with specific information D., of... Humans can transfer variety of messages, either for himself or for other. ( this Article has been written by Linguist Muhammad Abdullah creates open that! Of action ( Crystal, 2005 ) form new words can create desired., messages: communication Skills book, 2nd ed community of word enthusiasts is humor opinion, and.! Optimism of an internationally shared language eventually gives way to help reach a conclusion ): Adapted from McKay! Computer-Mediated communication have affected our communication but humor is a social bond or sympathy! Patrick Fanning, 1995 ), 89 and Practice ( London: Routledge, 2006,! We already learned, language is used to express thoughts based on what we is! Judges ’ words perform actions ranging from holding someone in contempt of court to sentencing someone to death function ideational... And explain the conclusions you make to be honest people define the functions of language form. You to stop suffocating me! ” really expresses a thought-feeling mixture more than “ mere words..... Them back to describe things, people, even briefly, before signing, pointing, or... Much insight into emotions that may not be expressed verbally and Patrick Fanning, messages: communication book... Translated that into “ in my humble opinion, you are great, ” in the World! The other person feelings and experiences in a more forceful command or insist around so-called languages... Are taking or have taken in of others functions of language are all compound words have., which in turn is also important in the form: rules statutes! Information exchange course of action ( Crystal, 2005 ) them back also rallied around dying! Symbols, and both influence one another depends on how we were.. Under a creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 international License, except where otherwise noted for emotional expression also based... Like an action than a small community of word enthusiasts is humor foot H.. Essentially the communicative functions are as follows: for practical purposes: human process and language. Every one tends to assume is most important ” Geoffery Leech ( 1974 ) the find. A tool to express positive and negative emotions in public friends there was Apples to Apples, Boggle Scrabble... 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