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1 0 obj TYPES OF INFLATION There are four main types of inflation with four different causes. ���:�s�����ؓ� Université d’Orléans, 2014. Except for 1949, 1955, and 2009, the prices of goods and services have, on average, risen each year since 1945. ppt. x���Mo�@����hGb�����H !UHS�U�����C�}�_� ��| �./������ 5 0 obj Economic terms, however, are never quite precise, nor is the use of words entirely uniform and consistent. endobj 2 0 obj Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Macroeconomics Monetary Theory of Inflation Exogenous Money Supply The money supply is exogenous, set by the central bank. Its contribution to inflation decreased to 0.6 ppt in December from a full 1 ppt in October. endobj << INFLATION- ADJUSTED COST Gallon of Gas 1950 $4 $3 $2 $1 $0 TODAY $ 2. This paper, mainly attempts to review and analyze the competing and complementary theories of inflation. <> 4 0 obj represented by the U.S. dollar spot price of one troy ounce, Inflation is represented by the Consumer Price Index. 4 0 obj << /Rotate 0 • The Fed is likely to hit the zero bound on its short-term interest rate tool in the next recession. << <>>> /Parent 2 0 R To illustrate this, we can look at a simple supply and demand diagram. Indices are unmanaged and cannot be purchased directly by investors. /Font endobj (S9i�2�Cw4�g_z1#}؞�4&m��p�w(��Vĥ����E��z�@W�c¾�wt��`��]�?��5�3�����vTc�v������RوW During the moderate period, the price increases persistently, but at a mild or moderate rate, i.e. Under creeping inflation, the price level rises up to a rate of 2 percent per annum. DOWNLOAD TO PDF; Measuring and forecasting inflation is important in setting premiums and anticipating claims. G. Ackley defined inflation as ‘a persistent and appreciable rise in the general level or average of prices’.In other words, inflation is a state of … stream Inflation and reflect a dozen diverse views on one of the nation's central economic problems. $ 2 57. /F0 15 0 R �of�7�P "1��Z!�8�y�8��=i�qD�;F4�����E}�#�/g �$�x���x�{�`�����5��� �K���1��w�CJ8�B�$� ARH�)���B��&�iW�T���q�/i5h���P�r�㑻nR���� M74�^ Presentation on Inflation Presented by: Navjot Bhogal 11010752 2. • High and/or volatile inflation hampers economic growth, and generates volatility in the ER. /F6 8 0 R However, the aggregate s… /Type /Page The effects of inflation on economic growth and on its macroeconomic deter-minants. Striking the Balance between Growth and Inflation in India ∗ (Presentation by Dr. Subir Gokarn, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India at the US-India Economic and Financial Partnership: CII and Brookings Institution, Washington DC, 27 June 2011) I. The theoretical survey in this research work yielded a six-blocked schematization of origins of inflation; monetary shocks, Demand side, supply-side (or real) shocks, structural and Historically, recessions tend to drive prices down, but that's not necessarily true for insurance. The United Kingdom, for instance, is found to have inflation effect spreading to real economy . Moderate Inflation: When the rate of inflation is very low, say in the range of 1% to 20%, it is moderate inflation. Scribd is the … ppt5 10 15 20. Types of Inflation from the quantitative point of view Creeping inflation the rate of inflation doesn’t exceed the rate of production growth, Creeping inflation is < 10% Galloping inflation the rate of inflation exceeds the rate of production growth, Galloping inflation is from 10% to 100%. But there is an extreme form of inflation called hyperinflation. As you can see in the illustration below, an increase in demand causes the aggregate supply curve (AD) to shift to the left (i.e., up). /F11 14 0 R % ppt. Moderate Inflation: The moderate inflation, also called as Creeping Inflation refers to a single digit annual increase in the general price level. /Contents 4 0 R >> >> Inflation ppt 1. �my!��#`E�-�GA���UApG�d�p{�%�p�-�=�� �G� +�-A#�C�V tΞk���z��$�O~Y�9jg����Bs���uV9.S�$_ϩLy�ci�Dx'Ƙ���W�F�e��9� �҉K��>�3��-�2���! 0.0. x����0 ��� � v@��{U��M"��S�(�3-z���\rm�Z��k��ٌn����ҲTv�'}�p`�G��>�ax���맪F���X�����Ll�0�,l��qr��� Demand-pull inflation occurs when the overall demand for goods or services increases faster than the production capacity of the economy. ,/�����!�wU_�~삣�"�U]�]���|����fJ�y�?����x�Xt��XX�9_��!8�A�Aŷ�t�=f�O3�vdžrj��g6�S0w�5��d��1�P��ү��i��tL�W�a@Ɨ���B�w.Γ|Χ��ܑ�hr+e�ޗ�H�׹ w�boW�^��vZ��19��� Y��v>Y7i!H�4��0C� �[m�@#ӆ&n�[̪�^}�����h��5��C:VX�����:/�JW|��aW�Ds��� �?LD&���Pu���zi�x��Tq��cZ @F�Ä�E���$s}���g�D���Һ��(�e�]"Q�er��o*H^��K�B�H�Z��_��֎���7�x"nIZ��.���eBvͨ�v�Z�#��� J����H�gZ�I� ���b�'�2� 0� mRP�'�L)�B�Tĉ}0)wjj����� �s�9I����禭�y�6K15��W��oMH_�:ݜ���4XG�W0�DP�b,��4t(6K- <> Inflation—the general rise in the prices of goods and services—is one of the differentiating characteristics of the U.S. economy in the post-World War II era. 'h�A(�m�CC᭏DPk�i�(q����ۦnN>~��0����B�x:�'_�(��11~�_omk��*m()O�C�ͣ��#zg?L"Z �S0 A�ȕS2�~��x�������i��sdy�jc��v��@�-.��pC!i�!b N�l$�����雉�{c�3���ӻ�۶�9���Tq�1�PY,2��Ī����m0��~"Q��z�՗�w �r�ٵ�?M�X� ,Kp�gݹ�V������}n����b͑i3�\$r9-�f�6-l5 �Ne���� �Vv�A>��[��W��h�/k�U(�>�9qHr�}�ГJ��,���v�> ��v�C����-��~���{�,��܇�׃FAMY�Q r�����49:gl�-Ʃ�O��8v��`�,"�%��5%�c��t� This occurred in Germany between 1921 and 1928, and more recently in Zimbabwe between 2008 and 2009. stream Many of us have views on what to do The previous Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) had intended to introduce the N5,000.00 currency bill into the Nigerian economy and claimed that such currency bill would help it … annual inflation of Kenya increased from 18.5% in June 2008 to 27.2% in March 2009, before falling marginally to 24.3% in July 2009. The goal of inflation-linked bonds is to ensure purchasing power by directly linking returns to inflation for the bond’s entire term. Things you can do to keep up with inflation. Types of Inflation: On the Basis of Rate. Finally, inflation is a sign that an economy is growing. Automatic Tire Inflation System Market - The automatic tire inflation system market is estimated to be USD 891.6 million in 2018 and is projected to reach USD 1,606.8 million by 2025, at a CAGR of 8.78%. Contents• Introduction• Definitions• Causes of inflation• Effects of inflation• Types of inflation• Inflation rate• Controlling inflation• Conclusion 3. S . Z)E��d *��(C���T�������M -�KPk����7m�,ˣ��,��@9�F��_���C�گ)����1i!� ���p���[g{ޱt,�n�N�*-V���K����@�kh�*�|=P^$�I�� ���og�#�)V0��a0 1 0 obj The word ((inflation" is most emphatically no exception. << /Filter /FlateDecode /F8 6 0 R In December 2018, rice remains the top driver of inflation, although to a much lesser extent compared to its peak. /MediaBox [0.0 0.0 392.0 640.0] – QE can help, but possibly not as much as Fed would like. -0.5. The automatic tire inflation system efficiently increases tire life, vehicle performance, and safety. estimates suggest that grade inflation has a positive effect on graduation rates and a negative effect on switching out of the c ollege to which the student was originally admitted. of inflation. ... PowerPoint Presentation: The Outlook for US Inflation and Monetary Policy Inflation refers to an increase in the price level that is sustained over a significant period of time. �A� ��9T���e���d�� �s(�~B��T�)�8�rSf{Z}[=]�+NCs�E@}17!D��:Ua*B��MWgԞF�fx�D�[=�,i��/������mP��a���L+ l2b�l�o�.���kLQ;�����I��Y��/�mm/�8� �[L���j겟�/o�!Dq��E�����Z�t$%m)�6���dT�j�!�tU�o)��x,��]i0���ld3^1YS���'8�r���t�Fif�wC �$h�=�9=�q ×����|eto�ʺ0ek�Cr������7̀�! The term inflation is usually used to indicate a rise in the general price level , though one can speak of inflationary movements in any single price or group of prices. endstream >> /F9 5 0 R Uganda was one of the faster growing economies in Africa with sustained growth averaging 7.8 % since 2000 with the annual inflation rate decreasing /im13 17 0 R /Resources 3 0 R Inflation is all about prices going up, but for healthy economy wages should be rising as well. Inflation may be defined as ‘a sustained upward trend in the general level of prices’ and not the price of only one or two goods. /F3 11 0 R %PDF-1.5 In November of 2008, Zimbabwe had an inflation rate of 79.6 billion percent. �2���s�J��t��l�](/���J��М|��p2� Vάџ�����Z�ڜ���l���.�ά��&�w�q�|��[���>���B9��t,ؠ������Ƞ�)�h�{ �� :��,��{�8�m.�J��w������,�M���]�����X����W�^s`�R����>�@؜Cq>��"���؃�%��we�Dy��w頮�s�jRخXspc �(��(O�c�v ï¿¿NNT: 2014ORLE0503ï¿¿. /F4 10 0 R [7], while the effect on inflation can be permanent in the European countries [8]. Standard errors in parentheses: * p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01 Inflation Presentation Transcript: 1.Inflation 2.Sub topics Meaning Features with examples Degree of inflation Causes –demand and supply side Effects Measures-monetary and fiscal measures 3.Meaning a sustained increase in the general price level leading to a fall in the purchasing power or value of money endobj 3 0 obj A 7. ... All markets clear in our economy andwe assume that domestic monetary policy follows a simple Taylor rule, allowingfor both interest-rate smoothing and a response to expected domestic inflation. /F10 16 0 R 3 0 obj Money loose purchase power, people hold as little money as possible. • Aiming for low and stable inflation is typically a key objective for monetary policy. << stream >> SYNOPSIS Introduction Definition Types of Inflation Causes of Inflation Effects of Inflation How is Inflation Measured Consequences of Inflation Measures Of Inflation 4. /F7 7 0 R ����/!�0��z>w��b %PDF-1.3 A mild inflation is generally considered a necessary condition of economic growth. -1.0. The question shouldn’t be whether inflation is rising, but whether it’s rising at a quicker pace than your wages, if the answer is a Yes only then inflation is problematic. C O N S U M E R P I C E I N D E 0.7 % X U. This type of inflation leads to a demand-supply gap (i.e., a shortage), which results in an increase in price (see also the law of supply and demand). presentation - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. /F5 9 0 R /CropBox [0.0 0.0 392.0 640.0] 48. <> 2018 inflation based on contribution 1. less than 10% or a single digit inflation rate. D�rB�x��Z6��-�ᜠ�I�~V�XǪ$ݪm�s n��U؎5O%G�0�. Inflation. endobj Furthermore, inflation itself may also cause future inflation. /Length 3680 <> Outline I. CtlB kObjtiCentral Bank Objectives II. 191 /F1 13 0 R Innovation, Tourism Demand and Inflation: Evidence from 14 European Countries . Inflation Presentation - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. 2 0 1 5 It s a smart idea to check on the CPI rate at least once a year The CPI rate is a good indicator of the ... 17_C_Presentation.pdf Created Date: The ��8ȒC6�*�t�$8M�,k�. Economics and Finance. 6 0 obj The most important inflation is called demand-pull or excess demand inflation. Enn-Lun Yong . %���� The effects of inflation on economic growth and on its macroeconomic determinants Muhammad Khan To cite this version: Muhammad Khan. /XObject Inflation, Disinflation, and Deflation Chapter 16 * In the late 1980s and early 1990s, surges in the rate of money supply growth in Brazil were reflected in nearly ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 743351-MDM4Y Types of Inflation . raising the inflation anchor to 2 percent. /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB] The central bank has the power to make the money supply larger or Linkers therefore contain two forms of payment: the real interest that is fixed at the beginning of the term, and compensation for the loss of pur-chasing power. %���� GROUP MEMBERS• Sumit Pachauri• Karishma Singh• Sumit SaxenaMangalayatan University (I.B.M Department) 3. x��\�r�6����v�*fp#@�:3�L�6����>�e1�H���u~$�� �n� ABS���!����Ӎ�q�s�PF6�?)HB2����s{��}_�(�|h����{x�����z��g�|��DJ�I%K���qg�=������?��D6�����tz'j����o��e�W�?6�����o��珏q'�;%r��/�S�z��?ӄ���D&������Į�93+�����T��Ǩ+�4ɵ0yƒL�p%�݄���x�~f�R�=&�o6e�o���.���9�W�j��O�]J�Q����/�pqҒv�Ks����ƽS{��W���*#V����uFR+��`�����4�v��l\���n͌y��˧л�AF�Y��ק���~y���o�_����w�[eV����oe�f"G�H7�sG&�_i�U$�nqG�͔XD��P-z�#�h��[��?ˌ��Z1���ՠ4��;�T�Nw͟���H����찺z)�nV�z=��qe��R���>�V4NG�l�ɬ5���9�glѨ�)S�Z����KS{����m. /F2 12 0 R )H�%%AM�l�\�JƤ:%�N���b�C�H��W&���U�mV�|��7��n5Veg����v endobj The inflation rate is one of several key indicators of business-cycle instability and the overall health of the macroeconomy, with primary focus on tracking the goal of price stability. endobj Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Mt PliF kMonetary Policy Frameworks This training material is the property of the International Monetary Fund … English. Our emphasis here is on diagnosis of the causes of inflation and a description of the effects of inflation, not on specific policy recommendations to end inflation. INFLATION 2. Inflation is when most prices in an entire economy are rising. This presentation by Triple-I Chief Economist Dr. Steven Weisbart looks at insurance prices and the forces that affect them. <>/Pattern<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Index performance is shown for illustrative purposes only and does not predict or depict the performance of any investment. >> Does not predict or depict the performance of any investment and demand diagram system increases! Not be purchased directly by investors the Outlook for US inflation and Monetary 2018. 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